The 25-year-old came on as an 80th-minute replacement for fellow England man Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain, and showed no signs of rustiness following the serious knee injury that kept him out for 10 months.
Arsenal boss Arsene Wenger said: “That appearance from Theo Walcott gives him the confidence to play again. I think he will soon be back to his best level.”
The 3-0 win over Burnley at Emirates Stadium also marked Calum Chambers’ first goal since joining the Gunners in the summer.
Chambers told Arsenal.com: “It was my first senior goal and a really proud moment for me.
“[The last one] was at youth level, but not at first-team level so I am really, really pleased.”
The 19-year-old bundled home from a corner and also provided the assist for Alexis Sanchez’s first goal. The Chilean netted his second courtesy of a cross from another England defender, Kieran Gibbs.
Danny Welbeck played 80 minutes for Arsenal, while Burnley fielded England Under-21s striker Danny Ings for the whole game and introduced Nathaniel Chalobah late on.
Elsewhere Ben Foster kept a clean sheet as West Bromwich Albion won 1-0 at Leicester City. U21s striker Saido Berahino was a constant menace, and while he did not score, he provided the cross that led to Esteban Cambiasso’s own goal.
Stewart Downing continued his fine form with an equaliser for West Ham United in the 2-2 draw at Stoke City.
“He scored with his right foot,” said West Ham manager Sam Allardyce. “People think he's all left foot, and he isn't. We moved him into the middle from the wing, and he made a terrific difference."
England centre-back Gary Cahill played a key role as Chelsea maintained their lead at the top of the table by beating Queens Park Rangers 2-1, while England Under-20s winger Rolando Aarons came on as a first-half substitute to help Newcastle United shock Liverpool 1-0.
Fraser Forster kept another clean sheet – his sixth in the Premier League this season – as Southampton continued their astonishing campaign with a 1-0 win at Hull City.
Leighton Baines, Phil Jagielka and Ross Barkley featured for Everton in the goalless draw with Swansea City, for whom Jonjo Shelvey was sent off.
In the Championship England Under-21s and Chelsea striker Patrick Bamford scored the second goal of his loan spell at Middlesbrough in a 3-0 win at Rotherham United. Young Lions centre-half Ben Gibson was also on the winning side.
Their international team-mate Tom Ince suffered an ignominious debut for Nottingham Forest, whom he joined on loan from Hull City this week, going down 3-0 at Huddersfield Town.
Derby County, meanwhile, featuring Jack Butland in goal and Will Hughes as a substitute, went down 2-1 at Brentford, while another of Gareth Southgate’s charges, Alex Pritchard, came on for the hosts after the break.
In League One Dele Alli reminded everyone exactly why he is one of the most promising young players in the country by scoring his seventh goal of the season as MK Dons beat Swindon Town 2-1.
The England Under-19s midfielder, 18, fired a curling shot into the top corner to help his side up to third.
England Men's team are next in action on Saturday 15 November when they take on Slovenia at Wembley Stadium. Click here for tickets.
You can see Gareth Southgate's England Under-21s side against Portugal at Burnley on Thursday 13 November. Tickets cost £10 for adults and £5 for concessions. Call 01282 70003 for more details.
Aidy Boothroyd's England U20s play host to Canada at Bournemouth a day earlier on Wednesday 12 November. Tickets cost just £3 for adults and £1 for U16s and concessions. Click here to buy your tickets.
And on Friday 14 November Shaun O'Driscoll's England U19s take on Italy at Rotherham United's New York Stadium. Tickets cost £3 for adults and £1 for U16s. Click here to buy your tickets.